BRAZIL

Geographic Aspects:

Brazil is located on the eastern coast of South America, by the Atlantic Ocean. It features an area of 8,515,692.27 km2, it is the 5th largest country in the world in terms of territorial extension. It has vast natural water reservoirs; the biggest forest on Earth; and flora, fauna, air, land, minerals and water resources of inestimable value for the planet. It has around 201.0 million inhabitants, distributed along 26 States and a Federal District, where the national capital Brasília is located. His Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is around BRL 4,430 billion (around  USD 2,100 billion) in 2013.

Demographic Aspects:

According to 2010 census data, around 25.6% of the population was younger than 15 years; 67.6% was between 15 and 64 years; and 6.8% was 65 years or older.  The demographic growth rate in the period between 2001 and 2010 was 1.17 % per year; 84% of the population is in urban areas; and for every 100 women, there are 95.9 men; the infant mortality rate (in 2008) was 23.3 per 1000 births. The life expectancy of the population (in 2008) was 72.9 years; 69.1 years for men; and 76.7 years for women.  

According to the 2010 census data, the population breakdown for the Brazilian geographic regions was the following:

RANK

REGION

POPULATION

% of BRASIL

1

Southeast

80,364,410

42.1

2

Northeast

53,081,950

27.8

3

South

27,386,891

14.4

4

North

15,864,454

8.31

5

Central-West

14,058,094

7.4

 

Total of Brazil

190,755,799

100.0

Source: IBGE Census, 2011.

The ranking of the most populous Brazilian states, in the 2010 census, was the following:  

RANK

STATE

POPULATION

% of BRASIL

1

São Paulo

41,262,199

21.6

2

Minas Gerais

19,597,330

10.3

3

Rio de Janeiro

15,989,929

8.4

4

Bahia

14,016,906

7.4

5

Rio Grande do Sul

10,693,929

5.6

6

Paraná

10,444,526

5.5

7

Pernambuco

8,796,448

4.6

8

Ceará

8,454,381

4.4

9

Pará

7,581,051

4.0

10

Maranhão

6,574,789

3.5

11

Santa Catarina

6,248,436

3.3

12

Goiás

6,003,788

3.2

13

Paraíba

3,766,528

2.0

14

Espírito Santo

3,514,952

1.8

15

Amazonas

3,483,985

1.8

16

Rio Grande do Norte

3,168,027

1.7

17

Alagoas

3,120,494

1.6

18

Piauí

3,118,360

1.6

19

Mato Grosso

3,035,122

1.6

20

Distrito Federal

2,570,160

1.4

21

Mato Grosso do Sul

2,449,024

1.3

22

Sergipe

2,068,017

1.1

23

Rondônia

1,562,409

0.8

24

Tocantins

1,383,445

0.8

25

Acre

733,559

0.4

26

Amapá

669,526

0.4

27

Roraima

450,479

0.2

 

Total of Brazil

190,755,799

100.0

Source: IBGE Census, 2011.

The 15 most populous cities in Brazil (with more than 11 million inhabitants), according to the 2010 census data, were the following:  

RANK

CITY

STATE

POPULATION

1

São Paulo

São Paulo

11,253,503

2

Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro

6,320,446

3

Salvador

Bahia

2,675,656

4

Brasília

Distrito Federal

2,570,160

5

Fortaleza

Ceará

2,452,195

6

Belo Horizonte

Minas Gerais

2,375,151

7

Manaus

Amazonas

1,802,014

8

Curitiba

Paraná

1,751,907

9

Recife

Pernambuco

1,537,704

10

Porto Alegre

Rio Grande do Sul

1,409,351

11

Belém

Pará

1,393,399

12

Goiânia

Goiás

1,302,001

13

Guarulhos

São Paulo

1,221,979

14

Campinas

São Paulo

1,080,113

15

São Luis

Maranhão

1,014,837

Source: IBGE Census, 2011.

Economic Aspects

In 2011 (IBGE, 2012), Brazil’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was BRL 4.143 trillion (USD 2 trillion), and a GDP per capita close to BRL 21,252.00 (USD 10,500.00). It has the biggest economy in Latin America and the sixth in the world, featuring well developed sectors in the areas of agriculture, industry, commerce and services. In agriculture, it is distinguished by the coffee, soy, rice, meat, sugar cane, citrus, and cocoa production. Its industrial park stands out for the production of textiles, chemical products, shoes, cement, iron, steel, airplanes, engines and automobiles, bodies for buses, machines, implements and equipment, as well as civil construction. In 2011, its sales (exports) in the external market totaled USD 256 billion (IBGE, 2012), and purchases (imports) in the amount of USD 226 billion.  

Political Aspects

The official name of the country is Federative Republic of Brazil; the capital is Brasília; it has 26 States and a Federal District (Brasília); the current president of Brazil is Dilma Vana Roussef, of the political party PT (Partido dos Trabalhadores/Workers’ Party); these are some of the main political parties:

PMDB - Partido do Movimento Democrático Brasileiro/ Brazilian Democratic Movement Party

PT - Partido dos Trabalhadores/Workers’ Party

PP - Partido Progressista/Progressive Party

PSDB - Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira/Brazilian Social Democracy Party

DEM – Democratas/Democrats

PTB - Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro/Brazilian Working Party

PDT - Partido Democrático Trabalhista/Working Democratic Party

PCdoB - Partido Comunista do Brasil/Communist Party of Brazil

PSB - Partido Socialista Brasileiro/Brazilian Socialist Party

PSC - Partido Social Cristão/Social Christian Party

PPS - Partido Popular Socialista/Popular Socialist Party

PV - Partido Verde/Green Party

PR - Partido da República/Party of the Republic

PSOL - Partido Socialismo e Liberdade/Socialism and Freedom Party

SDD - Partido Solidariedade/Solidarity Party

PHS - Partido Humanista da Solidariedade/Humanist Party of Solidarity

Other demographic and socioeconomic data can be found in the site of IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics), as well as in the sites indicated in the section of camera 4 in this WCAMS site, and in this summary.

Luis Roque Klering (in May 31, 2014)